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ビルマ人

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詳細 2010年2月16日 20:49更新

Kings of Burma
Many Thanks to: www.friesian.com
ARAKAN
WETHALI
Mahataingsandra 788-810
Thuriyataingsandra .810-830
Maulataingsandra 830-849
Paulataingsandra 849-875
Kalataingsandra 875-884
Dulataingsandra 884-903
Thiritaingsandra 903-935
Thingghathataingsandra 935-951
Tsulataingsandra 951-957
Amyathu 957-964
Paiphyu 964-994
Ngamengngatum 994-1018
First PINGTSA
Khettarheng 1018-1028
Tsandatheng 1028-1039
Mengrengphyu 1039-1049
Nagathuriya 1049-1052
Thuriyaradza 1052-1054
Punnaka 1054-1058
Mengphyugyi 1058-1060
Tsithabeng 1060-1061
Mengnanthu 1061-1066
Menglade 1066-1072
Mengkula 1072-1075
Mengbhilu 1075-1078
Thengkhaya 1078-1092
Mengthan 1092-1100
Mengpadi 1100-1103
PARIN
Letyamengnan 1103-1109
Thihaba 1109-1110
Radzagyi 1110-1112
Thakiwenggyi 1112-1115
Thakiwengngay 1115-1133
Gauliya 1133-1153
Datharadza 1153-1165
Ananthiri 1165-1167
KHYIT
Mengphuntsa 1167-1174
Pintsakawa 1174-1176
Gannayubaw 1176-1179
Tsalengkabo 1179-1180
Second PINGTSA
Midzutheng 1180-1191
Ngaranman 1191-1193
Ngapuggan 1193-1195
Ngarakhoing 1195-1198
Ngakyun 1198-1201
Ngatshu 1201-1205
Ngatswaitheng 1205-1206
Mengkounggyi 1206-1207
Mengkhoungngay 1207-1208
Kambhalounggyi 1208-1209
Kambhaloungngay 1209-1210
Letyagyi 1210-1218
Letyangay 1218-1229
Thanabeng 1229-1232
Nganathin 1232-1234
Nganalum 1234-1237
LOUNG-KYET
Hlanmaphyu 1237-1243
Radzathugyi 1243-1246
Tsaulu 1246-1251
Utstsanagyi 1251-1260
Tsaumwungyi 1260-1268
Nankyagyi 1268-1272
Mengbhilu 1272-1276
Tsithabeng 1276-1279
Meng Di 1279-1385
vassal of Ava, 1379-1430
Utstsanangay 1385-1387
Thiwarit 1387-1390
Thintse 1390-1394
Radzathu 1394-1395,
1397-1401
Tsithabeng 1395-1397
Myintsoingkyi 1397
Thinggathu 1401-1403
MYOUK-U
Mengtsaumwun 1404-1406,
1430-1434
Vacant, 1406-1430
Menkhari 1434-1459
Batsauphyu 1459-1482
Daulya 1482-1492
Batsonygo 1492-1494
Ranoung 1494
Tsalenggathu 1494-1501
Menradza 1501-1523
Gadzabadi 1523-1525
Mengtsau-o 1525
Thatsata 1525-1531
Mengbeng 1531-1553
Dik-Kha 1553-1555
Tsau-Lha 1555-1564
Mengtsekya 1564-1571
Mengphaloung 1571-1593
Mengradzagyi 1593-1612
Mengkhamoung 1612-1622
Thirithudhamma 1622-1638
Mengtsani 1638
Thado 1638-1645
Narabadigyi 1645-1652
Tsandathudhamma 1652-1684
Thirithuriya 1684-1685
Wara Dhammaradza 1684-1692
Munithu Dhammaradza 1692-1694
Tsandathuriya Dhammaradza 1694-1696
Naukahtadzau 1696
Mayuppiya 1696-1697
Kalamandat 1697-1698
Naradhibadi 1698-1700
Tsandawimala I 1700-1706
Tsandathuriya 1706-1710,
1731-1734
Tsandawidzaya 1710-1731
Naradhibadi 1734-1735
Narapawararadza 1735-1737
Tsandawidzala 1737
Katya 1737
Madarit 1737-1742
Nara-Apaya 1742-1761
Thirithu 1761
Paramaradza 1761-1764
Maharadza 1764-1773
Thumana 1773-1777
Tsandawimala II 1777
Thamitha-Dhammayit 1777-1782
Thamada 1782-1784
to Burma, 1784

The Burmese speak a Sino-Tibean language, more closely related to Tibetan and Karen than to Chinese itself. But, despite frequent political and military involvement with China, Burma has always been a sub-Indian culture, with Theravadin Buddhist religion and a Sanskrit based alphabet. The interesting circular form of Burmese letters is a consequence of the original writing materials. These were strips of leaves that would split easily if straight lines were made along the grain. Circular forms avoid or minimize this danger.

The earliest civilization in Burma was on the coast of Arakan. This was occasionally subject to the strong Burmese states in the Irrawaddy valley and eventually was aborbed.

The first great central Burmese state was that of Pagan. This eventually came to an end with invasion by the Mongols and the influx of the Shan people.


KINGDOM of PAGAN
Pyinbya c.900-c.925
Tannet c.925-c.950
Nga Khwe c.950-c.955
Theinkho c.955-c.970
Ngyaungusaw Rahan c.970-c.995
Kwonsaw Kyung Phyu c.995-c.1014
Kyitso c.1014-c.1020
Tsukkata c.1020-1044
Anawrahta 1044-1077
Sawlu 1077-1084
Kyanzittha 1084-1113
embassy to China, 1106
Alaungsithu 1113-1167
Mengshengtsau 1167
Narathu I 1167-1170
Narathenkha 1170-1173
Narapatisithu 1173-1210
Nantonmya 1210-1234
Kyaswa 1234-1250
Uzana I 1250-1254
Narathihapate,
"He who ran
from the Chinese" 1254-1287
Mongols loot Pagan, 1287
Kyawswa Mongol Vassal,
1287-1298
Sawahnit 1298-1325
Combined with Pinya
KINGDOM of PINYA
Athinhkaya 1298-c.1312
Yazathinkyan 1298-c.1312
Thihathu 1298-1324
Uzana II 1324-1343
Ngashishin 1343-1350
Kyanswange 1350-1359
Narathu II 1359-1364
Uzana Pyaung 1364
KINGDOM of AVA
Thadominbya 1364-1368
Nga Nu the Usurper 1368
Minkyiswasawke Chinese Vassal,
1368-1401
Tarabya 1401
Nga Nauk Han usurper,
1401
Minhkaung I 1401-1422
Thihathu 1422-1426
Minhlange 1426
Kalekyetaungnvo 1426-1427
Mohnyinthado 1427-1440
Minrekyansa 1440-1443
Narapati Chinese Vassal,
1443-1469
Thihathura 1469-1481
Minhkaung II 1481-1502
Shwenankyawshin 1502-1527
Thohanbwa the Usurper 1527-1543
Hkonmaing the Shan 1543-1546
Mobye Narapati Shan Vassal,
1546-1552
Sithkyawhtin Shan Vassal,
1552-1555
to Taungu, 1555




After the fall of Pagan and a transitional kingdom, the next great Burmese state was Ava. Ava, however, would never dominate Burma. It was precariously surrounded by the Shan states in the north, Arakan in the west, and Pegu in the south, sometimes advancing, as against Arakan in 1379-1430, sometimes retreating, and sometimes dominated by China.

These lists were largely derived from Bruce R. Gordon's Regnal Chronologies, with some details added from An Encyclopedia of World History (William L. Langer, Houghton Mifflin, 1952). The Maps are based on the Oxford Atlas of World History (Patrick K. O'Brien, General Editor, 1999, pp.64-65). Good lingustic information is in The Atlas of Languages (Facts On File, 1996, pp.62-64); and a descripiton of the Burmese language and its alphabet is in The World's Major Languages, edited by Bernard Comrie [Oxford University Press, 1987, pp.834-854].

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